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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Technologies have become important for interaction in couples. However, in some cases, controlling and aggressive behaviors can occur in the context of virtual interactions in couples; this is known as cyber-dating abuse CDA. Identifying factors linked to CDA, as perpetrator and victim, are relevant for its prevention; therefore, more research is needed in this novel field of study.

To contribute to the literature, our first goal was to analyze the associations among certain risk factors for CDA perpetration and victimization of, i. The second goal was to study whether there were differences in direct aggression and control, from the perpetrator and victim perspectives, with consideration of the above-mentioned risk factors.

Third, differences in the diverse range of control behaviors and direct aggression between women and men were explored.

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To this end, young adults aged between 18 and 35 years; women completed self-report questionnaires that allowed assessment of the above-mentioned variables. The showed that, among the wide range of CDA behaviors, indirect ones such as control behaviors were the most common. The highest level of control was strongly associated with the inability to manage behaviors under certain emotional states, especially negative ones, along with problematic smartphone usage. Sex differences were also observed: men displayed more sexist attitudes and violence justification, and perceived that they were more controlled by their partners.

Regarding CDA behaviors, men and women showed differences in control e.

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The were discussed in terms of the importance of better understanding these risk factors to attenuate the increasing prevalence of CDA in relationships. In recent years, information and communications technologies ICTs have served as important tools for interaction and entertainment [ 1 — 3 ].

This is especially the case in so-called digital generations, who socialize and interact through virtual platforms. The Internet and social networks provide tools that facilitate the creation of interpersonal relationships. These tools include making calls or video calls, sending text messages, and sharing photos, documents or location the person.

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Young people use many of these digital media tools for dating [ 4 ], as they facilitate communication between the members of a couple, anytime and anywhere. This is especially important in generations Y and Z Millennials and Centennials, respectivelywho consider the smartphone an indispensable device to communicate with their peers and partner.

However, despite the benefits of ICTs, negative effects have also been documented. In the context of relationships, smartphone usage, which allows immediate access to the Internet, and social applications and communication tools, make people more accessible and susceptible to being controlled, and more at risk of interpersonal intrusion and harassment [ 46 ]. In turn, this can give rise to a form of violence called partner cyber-violence or cyber-dating abuse CDA. It encompasses a wide range of abusive behaviors grouped into two dimensions: direct aggression and control.

Direct aggression involves behaviors aimed at harming the victim through direct attacks, such as threats, insults or spreading negative information about the partner or ex-partner, similar to identity theft.

Cyber-dating abuse in young adult couples: relations with sexist attitudes and violence justification, smartphone usage and impulsivity

Control involves invading the privacy of a partner or surveilling their social relationships, activities, location and associates [ 89 ]. Research indicates that CDA is growing worldwide [ 6 ]. In particular, it is important to address this phenomenon in young adults, because the risk of intimate partner violence peaks in that age group [ 10 ], i.

Borrajo et al.

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Prevalence rates of perpetration and victimization of the different types of CDA varied greatly among studies. Generally, it has been concluded that cyber-control behaviors are more frequent than direct aggression through digital tools, such as text messages, s, mobile phone apps, messages sent through different social networks, and webcams [ 16 ]. This indicates that the less explicit nature of control behaviors means that they are more readily accepted by young people, and may be perceived as a demonstration of love or romantic jealousy [ 1718 ]. Due to the prevalence and serious consequences of digital violence in couple relationships, obtaining more knowledge about the characteristics of victims and perpetrators, and the underlying factors, is important.

studies have shown a relationship between CDA perpetration and normative beliefs, violence justification [ 17 ], and sexist beliefs [ 19 ]. In addition, it has been found that being a victim of CDA is a risk factor for perpetration, and vice versa [ 2021 ]. However, there are contradictory about the role of other psychosocial variables including age, sex, attitudes such as gender-based onesand personality traits such as impulsiveness, especially in the context of problematic smartphone usage, which should be further studied to better understand CDA.

Concerning age, there is no consensus about its influence on CDA both perpetration and victimization. While some studies found that CDA was more frequent among younger people [ 13 ], others found no such age difference [ 4 ]. The heterogeneous on sex differences in CDA suggest that sex is an unreliable predictor of engagement in these behaviors.

Regarding perpetration, some studies found that a greater proportion of women were perpetrators of control [ 41322 ]. Conversely, others have shown lower levels of control and direct aggression in women [ 23 ], and higher levels of control [ 24 ] and direct aggression in men [ 25 ].

In terms of victimization, some authors concluded that women were more likely to be victims of control [ 422 ], while others reported a greater likelihood Dimock PA sex dating men being the victim of intrusiveness, humiliation, hostility and exclusion [ 2627 ]. Other research found that both sexes perpetrate and suffer from cyber-violence behaviors, especially control, in the context of the couple relationship [ 1328 ].

Finally, a recent study [ 29 ] found no sex differences in the perpetration of CDA, reporting that sex was a non-ificant predictor of these behaviors. Attitudes that could lead to acceptance and justification of violence have received attention in the literature on offline dating violence [ 30 ]. According to recent data, people with attitudes that justify violence towards a partner are more likely to be perpetrators or victims of CDA in all its forms [ 22 ].

Their study Dimock PA sex dating showed that this justification was ificantly linked to a higher likelihood of direct aggression in online dating relationships. Sexism has been shown to be related to aggressive behavior, and justification thereof, in offline relationships [ 3132 ]. Individuals with sexist beliefs adopt attitudes towards others based purely on their biological sex [ 33 ].

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In the context of online relationships, some research has found an effect of sexist beliefs e. These authors revealed an influence of hostile sexism on cyberbullying as a type of cyber aggression against women in dating relationships. The role of sexist attitudes in being a victim of CDA has been less well-explored, although there have been some novel findings on this topic.

Benevolent sexist attitudes predicted victimization involving specific forms of aggression [ 35 ]. Regarding control behaviors, hostile sexism and other variables, such as relational offline dating violence, have been shown to predict cyber-control in boys [ 37 ]; while romantic myths and verbal-emotional offline dating violence were the main predictors of cyber-control in girls [ 37 ]. Young people, influenced by certain myths about romantic love, come to consider jealousy and control of the partner as an expression of love, which makes it difficult for them to recognize that certain behaviors are forms of violence [ 37 — 39 ].

Finally, one of the most important personality traits in violent behavior has been shown to be impulsivity, which is the strongest predictor of both juvenile and adult offending [ 4041 ].

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Impulsivity predicts online deviance, including harassing or threatening posts and illegal hacking among undergraduate students [ 43 ], and has strong, direct effects on cyberbullying among youths [ 44 ]. These authors concluded that both suffering from cyber-victimization and higher impulsivity were risk factors for becoming a cyber-aggressor. These findings suggest that direct aggression may also be the result of an impulsive reaction to a ly experienced aggressive act reactive aggression.

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The widespread availability and use of smartphones can lead to impulsive decision-making. This is in line with the finding of Wilmer and Chein [ 45 ] that heavier investment of time in a mobile device is related to weaker impulse control.

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Furthermore, social media users have a greater tendency to prefer smaller but immediate rewards in delay-discounting tasks, which also indicates increased reward-driven impulsivity [ 45 ]. Against this background, Marcum et al.

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Therefore, based on these findings, smartphone abuse may promote impulsive responses to, or the posting of, comments online, thereby facilitating impulsive, non-reflective communications and thus promoting CDA. Several studies have also reported an association between impulsivity and cyber-victimization. Furthermore, impulsivity has also been related to engaging in high-risk and addictive internet behaviour. This result is consistent with findings indicating that low self-control is associated with increased levels of cyber Dimock PA sex dating [ 4448 ]. In summary, research on the role of certain factors in CDA is relatively recent and, in some cases, the data are insufficient to draw definitive conclusions.

Therefore, additional research is needed to shed more light on this topic. Because being a perpetrator or victim of cyber-aggression and cyber-control in relationships is the result of complex interactions among risk factors, the first goal of this study was to explore the diverse factors associated with CDA, including sexist attitudes and violence justification, problematic smartphone usage, and impulsiveness, as well as sex and age.

No specific hypothesis was formulated given the descriptive and exploratory nature of this analysis. The second goal was to analyze differences in CDA direct aggression and control by sexist attitudes and violence justification, problematic smartphone usage, and impulsiveness.

Following studies, we expected that participants exhibiting sexist attitudes and violence justification would have higher CDA perpetration and victimization scores direct aggression and control than non-sexist participants [ 22 ]; b Smartphone usage hypothesis.

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Based on findings, we expected that participants exhibiting problematic smartphone usage e. The most impulsive individuals were expected to display more direct aggression and control behaviors [ 47 ]. The third goal was to explore whether there were differences in the diverse range of controlling behaviors, as well as direct aggression, between women and men.

According to the literature [ 42223 ], there is no consensus on the utility of sex as a predictor of CDA. However, in line withwe expected to observe sex differences in control behaviors and direct aggression. Participants aged between 18 and 22 years were considered as generation Z Of the participants, All participants were in, or had been in, a relationship average duration of Those not currently in a relationship were asked to think about their one when making their responses.

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The participants were recruited by ing professors from various departments of the university. Regarding smartphone usage and type of apps, and time investedmost of the participants used only one instant messaging app Variety was greater with respect to the social networks apps used.

Most of the young adults used four Fewer people used one or two social networks 1.

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